The present volume is a sincere attempt to have a critical and exhaustive study of the social and economic life of the people of Odisha during the colonial period, i.e. during the British rule in Odisha. It analyses and illustrates various aspects of the society and economic conditions of the Odishan people. The social aspects that were prevailed in the colonial society like the caste system, sati, purdah, female infanticide, child marriage, polygamy, dowry system, untouchability, meriah or human sacrifices etc., and the measures taken to eradicate them are analyses in a very detailed manner. The Socio-religious reform movements like the Brahmo movement, Mahima cult etc., and social transformation that occurred as a result of such movements are highlighted with due weightage. Due emphasis has also been given on different economic aspects such as the process of agriculture, irrigation system, crops pattern, land revenue system, crafts and industry and both inland and overseas trade. Land tenure, survey and settlement, relation between the landlords and the tenants, rural indebtedness etc., constitutes some special features of the economic life. The British land revenue policy which mostly was detrimental to the growth of the Odishan economy is dealt with very critically. Utmost care has been taken to make the work bias free; it tries to present the theme in a very objective manner with new interpretations applying an interdisciplinary approach. The work is expected to be very helpful to the teachers, students, scholars and researchers reading and pursuing research on the history of the British rule in Odisha in particular and that of India in general.